Trend Research Centre


1000 CLUB OF THE ADSORPTION

Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) --1900-present

There were 52,125,890 publications which included 36,030,844 articles in the SCI-EXPANDED from 1900

“Adsorption”, “sorption”, and “biosorption” were used as the keywords to search titles, abstracts, keywords, and KeyWords Plus.

There were 515,306 publications related to adsorption which included 484,483 articles in SCI-EXPANDED

94 articles with “adsorption”, “sorption”, or “biosorption” in “front page” including titles, abstracts, and author keywords have been cited at least 1000 times from Web of Science Core Collection.

Data last updated 03 January 2019

 

Figure 1. 1000 club of the adsorption by year

 

Figure 2. 1000 club of the adsorption by total citations

 

Figure 3. 1000 club of the adsorption by citations per year

 

Figure 4. 1000 club of the adsorption by total citations in 2018

 

Figure 5. Top articles in 2018 (C2017 > 900)

 

Stephen Brunauer (Deceased)

Paul Hugh Emmett (Deceased)

Edward Teller (Deceased)

1.        Brunauer, S., Emmett, P.H. and Teller, E. (1938), Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 60 (2), 309-319.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 16990

Addresses: George Washington University, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, Washington, DC USA

Web of Science Category: Multidisciplinary Chemistry


Charles T. Kresge

2014 Nobel Laureates Predictions

M.E. Leonowicz

Wieslaw J. Roth

James C. Vartuli

Jeffrey S. Beck

2.        Kresge, C.T., Leonowicz, M.E., Roth, W.J., Vartuli, J.C. and Beck, J.S. (1992), Ordered mesoporous molecular sieves synthesized by a liquid-crystal template mechanism. Nature, 359 (6397), 710-712.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 13315

KeyWords Plus: Phosphate

Abstract: MICROPOROUS and mesoporous inorganic solids (with pore diameters of less-than-or-equal-to 20 angstrom and approximately 20-500 angstrom respectively)1 have found great utility as catalysts and sorption media because of their large internal surface area. Typical microporous materials are the crystalline framework solids, such as zeolites2, but the largest pore dimensions found so far are approximately 10-12 angstrom for some metallophosphates3-5 and approximately 14 angstrom for the mineral cacoxenite6. Examples of mesoporous solids include silicas7 and modified layered materials8-11, but these are invariably amorphous or paracrystalline, with pores that are irregularly spaced and broadly distributed in size8,12. Pore size can be controlled by intercalation of layered silicates with a surfactant species9,13, but the final product retains, in part, the layered nature of the precursor material. Here we report the synthesis of mesoporous solids from the calcination of aluminosilicate gels in the presence of surfactants. The material14,15 possesses regular arrays of uniform channels, the dimensions of which can be tailored (in the range 16 angstrom to 100 angstrom or more) through the choice of surfactant, auxiliary chemicals and reaction conditions. We propose that the formation of these materials takes place by means of a liquid-crystal 'templating' mechanism, in which the silicate material forms inorganic walls between ordered surfactant micelles.

Addresses: Mobil Research and Development Corporation, Central Research Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA; Central Research Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA

Present addresses:

Charles T. Kresge:

M.E. Leonowicz:

W.J. Roth:

J.C. Vartuli:

J.S. Beck:

Reprint Address: Charles T. Kresge, Mobil Research and Development Corporation, Paulsboro Research Laboratory, Paulsboro, NJ 08066, USA

Web of Science Category: Multidisciplinary Sciences


Irving Langmuir (Deceased)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932

3.        Langmuir, I. (1918), The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 40, 1361-1403.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 10132

Addresses: Research Laboratory of the General Electric Co., NY USA

Web of Science Category: Chemistry, Multidisciplinary


Stefan Grimme

Leibniz Prize 2015

Jens Antony

Stephan Ehrlich

Helge Krieg

4.        Grimme, S., Antony, J., Ehrlich, S. and Krieg, H. (2010), A consistent and accurate ab initio parametrization of density functional dispersion correction (DFT-D) for the 94 elements H-Pu. Journal of Chemical Physics, 132 (15), Article Number: 154104.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 10132

Abstract: The method of dispersion correction as an add-on to standard Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT-D) has been refined regarding higher accuracy, broader range of applicability, and less empiricism. The main new ingredients are atom-pairwise specific dispersion coefficients and cutoff radii that are both computed from first principles. The coefficients for new eighth-order dispersion terms are computed using established recursion relations. System (geometry) dependent information is used for the first time in a DFT-D type approach by employing the new concept of fractional coordination numbers (CN). They are used to interpolate between dispersion coefficients of atoms in different chemical environments. The method only requires adjustment of two global parameters for each density functional, is asymptotically exact for a gas of weakly interacting neutral atoms, and easily allows the computation of atomic forces. Three-body nonadditivity terms are considered. The method has been assessed on standard benchmark sets for inter- and intramolecular noncovalent interactions with a particular emphasis on a consistent description of light and heavy element systems. The mean absolute deviations for the S22 benchmark set of noncovalent interactions for 11 standard density functionals decrease by 15%-40% compared to the previous (already accurate) DFT-D version. Spectacular improvements are found for a tripeptide-folding model and all tested metallic systems. The rectification of the long-range behavior and the use of more accurate C-6 coefficients also lead to a much better description of large (infinite) systems as shown for graphene sheets and the adsorption of benzene on an Ag(111) surface. For graphene it is found that the inclusion of three-body terms substantially (by about 10%) weakens the interlayer binding. We propose the revised DFT-D method as a general tool for the computation of the dispersion energy in molecules and solids of any kind with DFT and related (low-cost) electronic structure methods for large systems.

Addresses:

Stefan Grimme: Theoretische Organische Chemie, Organisch-Chemisches Institut, Universität Münster, Corrensstrasse 40, D-48149 Münster, Germany

Jens Antony: Theoretische Organische Chemie, Organisch-Chemisches Institut, Universität Münster, Corrensstrasse 40, D-48149 Münster, Germany, E-mail: jens.antony@uni-muenster.de

Stephan Ehrlich: Theoretische Organische Chemie, Organisch-Chemisches Institut, Universität Münster, Corrensstrasse 40, D-48149 Münster, Germany, E-mail: stephan.ehrlich@uni-muenster.de

Helge Krieg: Theoretische Organische Chemie, Organisch-Chemisches Institut, Universität Münster, Corrensstrasse 40, D-48149 Münster, Germany, E-mail: hkrieg@uni-muenster.de

Reprint Address: Stefan Grimme: Theoretische Organische Chemie, Organisch-Chemisches Institut, Universität Münster, Corrensstrasse 40, D-48149 Münster, Germany. E-mail: grimmes@uni-muenster.de

Web of Science Category: Atomic Molecular & Chemical Physics


Jeffrey S. Beck

James C. Vartuli

Wieslaw J. Roth

M.E. Leonowicz

Charles T. Kresge

2014 Nobel Laureates Predictions

K.D. Schmitt

C.T.W. Chu

D.H. Olson

E.W. Sheppard

Sharon B. McCullen

J.B. Higgins

J.L. Schlenker

5.        Beck, J.S., Vartuli, J.C., Roth, W.J., Leonowicz, M.E., Kresge, C.T., Schmitt, K.D., Chu, C.T.W., Olson, D.H., Sheppard, E.W., McCullen, S.B., Higgins, J.B. and Schlenker, J.L. (1992), A new family of mesoporous molecular-sieves prepared with liquid crystal templates. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 114 (27), 10834-10843.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 9198

Abstract: The synthesis, characterization, and proposed mechanism of formation of a new family of silicate/aluminosilicate mesoporous molecular sieves designated as M41S is described. MCM-41, one member of this family, exhibits a hexagonal arrangement of uniform mesopores whose dimensions may be engineered in the range of approximately 15 angstrom to greater than 100 angstrom. Other members of this family, including a material exhibiting cubic symmetry, have been synthesized. The larger pore M41S materials typically have surface areas above 700 m2/g and hydrocarbon sorption capacities of 0.7 cc/g and greater. A templating mechanism (liquid crystal templating-LCT) in which surfactant liquid crystal structures serve as organic templates is proposed for the formation of these materials. In support of this templating mechanism, it was demonstrated that the structure and pore dimensions of MCM-41 materials are intimately linked to the properties of the surfactant, including surfactant chain length and solution chemistry. The presence of variable pore size MCM-41, cubic material, and other phases indicates that M41S is an extensive family of materials.

Addresses: Mobil Research and Development Corporation, Paulsboro Research Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543; Mobil Research and Development Corporation, Paulsboro Research Laboratory, Paulsboro, NJ 08066

Present addresses:

J.S. Beck:

J.C. Vartuli:

W.J. Roth:

M.E. Leonowicz:

C.T. Kresge:

K.D. Schmitt:

C.T.W. Chu:

D.H. Olson:

E.W. Sheppard:

S.B. Mccullen:

J.B. Higgins:

J.L. Schlenker:

Reprint Address: Beck, JS, Mobil Research and Development Corporation, Paulsboro Research Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543.

Web of Science Category: Multidisciplinary Chemistry


Yuh-Shan Ho

Gordon McKay

6.        Ho, Y.S. and McKay, G. (1999), Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes. Process Biochemistry, 34 (5), 451-465.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 7380

Author Keywords: Kinetics; Sorption; Pseudo-Second Order

Abstract: A literature review of the use of sorbents and biosorbents to treat polluted aqueous effluents containing dyes/organics or metal ions has been conducted. Over 70 systems have been reported since 1984 and over 43 of these reported the mechanism as being a pseudo-first order kinetic mechanism. Three sorption kinetic models are presented in this paper and have been used to test 11 of the literature systems previously reported as first order kinetics and one system previously reported as a second order process. In all 12 systems, the highest correlation coefficients were obtained for the pseudo-second order kinetic model. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Addresses: Hong Kong University Science & Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Hong Kong, People’s R China

Present addresses:

Yuh-Shan Ho: Asia University, Water Research Centre, Taichung 41354, Taiwan. E-mail: ysho@asia.edu.tw

Gordon McKay: Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Sustainable Development, College of Science & Engineering, E-mail: gmckay@qf.org.qa

Reprint Address: McKay, G, Hong Kong University Science & Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Hong Kong, People’s R China

Web of Science Category: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology; Chemical Engineering


Graeme Henkelman

Blas Pedro Uberuaga

Hannes Jónsson

7.        Henkelman, G., Uberuaga, B.P. and Jónsson, H. (2000), A climbing image nudged elastic band method for finding saddle points and minimum energy paths. Journal of Chemical Physics, 113 (22), 9901-9904.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 6346

Abstract: A modification of the nudged elastic band method for finding minimum energy paths is presented. One of the images is made to climb up along the elastic band to converge rigorously on the highest saddle point. Also, variable spring constants are used to increase the density of images near the top of the energy barrier to get an improved estimate of the reaction coordinate near the saddle point. Applications to CH4 dissociative adsorption on Ir(111) and H-2 on Si(100) using plane wave based density functional theory are presented. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics. [S0021-9606(00)71246-3].

Addresses: University of Washington, Department of Chemistry 351700, Seattle, WA 98195 USA; University of Washington, Department of Physics 351560, Seattle, WA 98195 USA

Present addresses:

Graeme Henkelman: University of Texas Austin, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Austin, TX 78712 USA. E-mail: henkelman@mail.utexas.edu

Blas Pedro Uberuaga: Technical Staff Member, Materials Science and Technology Division (MST-8) Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA. E-mail: blas@lanl.gov

Hannes Jónsson: University of Iceland, Chemistry division of the Science Institute, Iceland; E-mail: hj@hi.is

Reprint Address: Henkelman, G, University of Washington, Department of Chemistry 351700, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.

Web of Science Category: Atomic, Molecular & Chemical Physics


Matt Law

Lori E. Greene

Justin C. Johnson

Richard J. Saykally

Peidong Yang

2014 Nobel Laureates Predictions

8.        Law, M., Greene, L.E., Johnson, J.C., Saykally, R. and Yang, P.D. (2005), Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells. Nature Materials, 4 (6), 455-459.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 4564

Author Keywords: desulfurization; gasoline; fuels; diesel fuel; jet fuel; catalysis; adsorption

Abstract: Excitonic solar cells(1)-including organic, hybrid organic inorganic and dye-sensitized cells (DSCs)-are promising devices for inexpensive, large-scale solar energy conversion. The DSC is currently the most efficient(2) and stable(3) excitonic photocell. Central to this device is a thick nanoparticle film that provides a large surface area for the adsorption of light-harvesting molecules. However, nanoparticle DSCs rely on trap-limited diffusion for electron transport, a slow mechanism that can limit device efficiency, especially at longer wavelengths. Here we introduce a version of the dye-sensitized cell in which the traditional nanoparticle film is replaced by a dense array of oriented, crystalline ZnO nanowires. The nanowire anode is synthesized by mild aqueous chemistry and features a surface area up to one-fifth as large as a nanoparticle cell. The direct electrical pathways provided by the nanowires ensure the rapid collection of carriers generated throughout the device, and a full Sun efficiency of 1.5% is demonstrated, limited primarily by the surface area of the nanowire array.

Addresses: University of California, Berkeley, Department of Chemistry, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA; University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA

Present addresses:

Matt Law: University of California, Irvine, Department of Chemistry, 2127 Natural Sciences II, Irvine, CA 92697 USA; E-mail: matt.law@uci.edu

Lori E. Greene: University of California, Irvine, School of Physical Sciences, USA; E-mail: legreene@uci.edu

Justin C. Johnson: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Chemical and Materials Science Center, USA; E-mail: Justin.Johnson@nrel.gov

Richard Saykally: University of California, Berkeley, Department of Chemistry, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. E-mail: saykally@berkeley.edu

Peidong Yang: University of California, Berkeley, Department of Chemistry, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. E-mail: p_yang@berkeley.edu

Reprint Address: Law, M, University of California, Berkeley, Department of Chemistry, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.

Web of Science Category: Physical Chemistry; Materials Science, Multidisciplinary; Applied Physics; Condensed Matter Physics


Bjørk Hammer

L.B. Hansen

Jens K. Nørskov

9.        Hammer, B., Hansen, L.B. and Nørskov, J.K. (1999), Improved adsorption energetics within density-functional theory using revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functionals. Physical Review B, 59 (11), 7413-7421.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 3520

Abstract: A simple formulation of a generalized gradient approximation for the exchange and correlation energy of electrons has been proposed by Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (PBE) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996)]. Subsequently Zhang and Yang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 890 (1998)] have shown that a slight revision of the PBE functional systematically improves the atomization energies for a large database of small molecules. In the present work, we show that the Zhang and Yang functional (revPBE) also improves the chemisorption energetics of atoms and molecules on transition-metal surfaces. Our test systems comprise atomic and molecular adsorption of oxygen, CO, and NO on Ni(100), Ni(111), Rh(100), Pd(100), and Pd(111) surfaces. As the revPBE functional may locally violate the Lieb-Oxford criterion, we further develop an alternative revision of the PBE functional, RPBE, which gives the same improvement of the chemisorption energies as the revPBE functional at the same time as it fulfills the Lieb-Oxford criterion locally. [S0163-1829(99)02711-3].

Addresses: University of Aalborg, Institute of Physics, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark; Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics, Center for Atomic-scale Materials Physics, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark

Present addresses:

Bjørk Hammer: University of Aalborg, Institute of Physics, Pontoppidanstr 103, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark

L.B. Hansen:

Jens K. Nørskov:

Reprint Address: Hammer, B, University of Aalborg, Institute of Physics, Pontoppidanstr 103, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark

Web of Science Category: Condensed Matter Physics


P.C. Lee

Dan Meisel

10.     Lee, P.C. and Meisel, D. (1982), Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 86 (17), 3391-3395.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 3471

Addresses: Argonne National Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Argonne, IL 60439, USA

Present addresses:

P.C. Lee:

Dan Meisel: Radiation Laboratory and Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA. E-mail: dani@nd.edu

Reprint Address: Meisel, D, Argonne National Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Argonne, IL 60439, USA

Web of Science Category: Physical Chemistry


Masatake Haruta

2012 Nobel Laureates Predictions

11.     Haruta, M. (1997), Size- and support-dependency in the catalysis of gold. Catalysis Today, 36 (1), 153-166.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 3258

Author Keywords: Gold Catalysts; Adsorption; Preparation

Abstract: The adsorption properties and reactivities of gold are summarized in terms of their size dependency from bulk to fine particles, clusters and atoms. The catalytic performances of gold markedly depend on dispersion, supports, and preparation methods. When gold is deposited on select metal oxides as hemispherical ultra-fine particles with diameters smaller than 5 nn, it exhibits surprisingly high activities and/or selectivities in the combustion of CO and saturated hydrocarbons, the oxidation-decomposition of amines and organic halogenated compounds, the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, the hydrogenation of carbon oxides, unsaturated carbonyl compounds, alkynes and alkadienes, and the reduction of nitrogen oxides. The unique catalytic nature of supported gold can be explained by assuming that the gold-metal oxide perimeter interface acts as a site for activating at least one of the reactants, for example, oxygen. Some examples and future prospects in applications are also briefly described.

Addresses: Government Industrial Research Institute of Osaka, Midorigaoka I, Ikeda 563, Japan; Kishida Chemicals Company, Ltd, Joshoji-machi, Kadoma 571, Japan; Research Development Corporation of Japan, Science Building, 5-2 Nagata-Cho 2-chome, Tokyo 100 Japan

Present addresses:

Masatake Haruta: Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Urban Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan; E-mail: haruta-masatake@center.tmu.ac.jp

Reprint Address: Haruta, M (reprint author), Government Industrial Research Institute of Osaka, Midorigaoka I, Ikeda 563, Japan

Web of Science Category: Applied Chemistry; Physical Chemistry; Chemical Engineering


Anne C. Dillon

Kim M. Jones

T.A. Bekkedahl

C.H. Kiang

Donald S. Bethune

Michael J. Heben

12.     Dillon, A.C., Jones, K.M., Bekkedahl, T.A., Kiang, C.H., Bethune, D.S. and Heben, M.J. (1997), Storage of hydrogen in single-walled carbon nanotubes. Nature, 386 (6623), 377-379.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 3174

Abstract: Pores of molecular dimensions can adsorb large quantities of gases owing to the enhanced density of the adsorbed material inside the pores(1), a consequence of the attractive potential of the pore walls, Pederson and Broughton have suggested(2) that carbon nanotubes, which have diameters of typically a few nanometres, should be able to draw up liquids by capillarity, and this effect has been seen for low-surface-tension liquids in large-diameter, multi-walled nanotubes(3). Here we show that a gas can condense to high density inside narrow, single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), Temperature-programmed desorption spectrosocopy shows that hydrogen will condense inside SWNTs under conditions that do not induce adsorption within a standard mesoporous activated carbon, The very high hydrogen uptake in these materials suggests that they might be effective as a hydrogen-storage material for fuel-cell electric vehicles.

Addresses: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401, USA; IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA 95120, USA

Present addresses:

Anne C. Dillon: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Center for Materials and Chemical Sciences, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 USA. E-mail: anne.dillon@nrel.gov

Kim M. Jones: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Center for Photovoltaics, Golden, CO 80401 USA

T.A. Bekkedahl:

C.H. Kiang:

D.S. Bethune:

Michael J. Heben: Chemical & Materials Science Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401 USA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 USA. E-mail: mheben@utnet.utoledo.edu

Web of Science Category: Multidisciplinary Sciences


Stephen Brunauer

Lola S. Deming

W. Edwards Deming

Edward Teller

13.     Brunauer, S., Deming, L.S., Deming, W.E. and Teller, R. (1940), On a theory of the van der Waals adsorption of gases. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 62 (7), 1723-1732.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 3154

Addresses: Bureau of Agricultural Chemistry and Engineering, George Washington University

Web of Science Category: Multidisciplinary Chemistry


Graeme Henkelman

Hannes Jónsson

14.     Henkelman, G. and Jónsson, H. (2000), Improved tangent estimate in the nudged elastic band method for finding minimum energy paths and saddle points. Journal of Chemical Physics, 113 (22), 9978-9985.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 2766

Abstract: An improved way of estimating the local tangent in the nudged elastic band method for finding minimum energy paths is presented. In systems where the force along the minimum energy path is large compared to the restoring force perpendicular to the path and when many images of the system are included in the elastic band, kinks can develop and prevent the band from converging to the minimum energy path. We show how the kinks arise and present an improved way of estimating the local tangent which solves the problem. The task of finding an accurate energy and configuration for the saddle point is also discussed and examples given where a complementary method, the dimer method, is used to efficiently converge to the saddle point. Both methods only require the first derivative of the energy and can, therefore, easily be applied in plane wave based density-functional theory calculations. Examples are given from studies of the exchange diffusion mechanism in a Si crystal, Al addimer formation on the Al(100) surface, and dissociative adsorption of CH4 on an Ir(111) surface. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics. [S0021-9606(00)70546-0].

Addresses: Department of Chemistry, Box 351700, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 USA

Present addresses:

Graeme Henkelman: University of Texas Austin, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Austin, TX 78712 USA. E-mail: henkelman@mail.utexas.edu

Hannes Jónsson: University of Iceland, Chemistry division of the Science Institute, Iceland; E-mail: hj@hi.is

Reprint Address: Henkelman, G (reprint author), Univ Washington, Dept Chem, Box 351700, Seattle, WA 98195 USA

Web of Science Category: Molecular & Chemical Atomic Physics


David Xiulei Ji

Kyu Tae Lee

Linda F. Nazar

15.     Ji, X.L., Lee, K.T. and Nazar, L.F. (2009), A highly ordered nanostructured carbon-sulphur cathode for lithium-sulphur batteries. Nature Materials, 8 (6), 500-506.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 2683

Abstract: The Li-S battery has been under intense scrutiny for over two decades, as it offers the possibility of high gravimetric capacities and theoretical energy densities ranging up to a factor of five beyond conventional Li-ion systems. Herein, we report the feasibility to approach such capacities by creating highly ordered interwoven composites. The conductive mesoporous carbon framework precisely constrains sulphur nanofiller growth within its channels and generates essential electrical contact to the insulating sulphur. The structure provides access to Li(+) ingress/egress for reactivity with the sulphur, and we speculate that the kinetic inhibition to diffusion within the framework and the sorption properties of the carbon aid in trapping the polysulphides formed during redox. Polymer modification of the carbon surface further provides a chemical gradient that retards diffusion of these large anions out of the electrode, thus facilitating more complete reaction. Reversible capacities up to 1,320m Ah g(-1) are attained. The assembly process is simple and broadly applicable, conceptually providing new opportunities for materials scientists for tailored design that can be extended to many different electrode materials.

Addresses: University of Waterloo, Department of Chemistry, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada

Present addresses:

Xiulei Ji: Departmenet of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA. E-mail: david.ji@oregonstate.edu

Kyu Tae Lee: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea. E-mail: ktlee@unist.ac.kr

Linda F. Nazar: Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 Canada. E-mail: lfnazar@uw­aterloo.ca

Reprint Address: Linda F. Nazar (reprint author) University of Waterloo, Department of Chemistry, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. E-mail: lfnazar@uwaterloo.ca

Web of Science Category: Physical Chemistry; Multidisciplinary Materials Science; Applied Physics; Condensed Matter Physics


Kyo Sung Park

Zheng Ni

Adrien P. Côté

Jae Yong Choi

Rudan Huang

Fernando J. Uribe-Romo

Hee K. Chae

Michael O’Keeffe

Omar M. Yaghi

2010 Nobel Laureates Predictions

 

16.     Park, K.S., Ni, Z., Cote, A.P., Choi, J.Y., Huang, R.D., Uribe-Romo, F.J., Chae, H.K., O’Keeffe, M. and Yaghi, O.M. (2006), Exceptional chemical and thermal stability of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103 (27), 10186-10191.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 2567

Abstract: Twelve zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs; termed ZIF-1 to -12) have been synthesized as crystals by copolymerization of either Zn(II) (ZIF-1 to -4, -6 to -8, and -10 to -11) or Co(II) (ZIF-9 and -12) with imidazolate-type links. The ZIF crystal structures are based on the nets of seven distinct aluminosilicate zeolites: tetrahedral Si(AI) and the bridging O are replaced with transition metal ion and imidazolate link, respectively. In addition, one example of mixed-coordination imidazolate of Zn(II) and In(III) (ZIF-5) based on the garnet net is reported. Study of the gas adsorption and thermal and chemical stability of two prototypical members, ZIF-8 and -11, demonstrated their permanent porosity (Langmuir surface area = 1,810 m(2)/g), high thermal stability (up to 550 degrees C), and remarkable chemical resistance to boiling alkaline water and organic solvents.

Addresses: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Center for Reticular Materials Research at California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.

Department of Chemistry Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-748, South Korea.

Institute for Chemical Physics, School of Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China.

Department of Chemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA.

Present addresses:

Kyo Sung Park:

Zheng Ni:

Adrien P. Côté:

Jae Yong Choi:

Rudan Huang:

Fernando J. Uribe-Romo:

Hee K. Chae:

Michael O’Keeffe: Department of Chemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA. E-mail: mokeeffe@asu.edu

Omar M. Yaghi: E-mail: yaghi@berkeley.edu

Reprint Address: Yaghi, OM (reprint author), Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Center for Reticular Materials Research at California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA. E-mail: yaghi@chem.ucla.edu

Web of Science Category: Multidisciplinary Sciences


Vojislav R. Stamenkovic

Ben Fowler

Bongjin Simon Mun

Guofeng Wang

Philip N. Ross

Christopher A. Lucas

Nenad M. Marković

 

17.     Stamenkovic, V.R., Fowler, B., Mun, B.S., Wang, G.F., Ross, P.N., Lucas, C.A. and Marković, N.M. (2007), Improved oxygen reduction activity on Pt3Ni(111) via increased surface site availability. Science, 315 (5811), 493-497.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 2414

Abstract: The slow rate of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC) is the main limitation for automotive applications. We demonstrated that the Pt3Ni( 111) surface is 10-fold more active for the ORR than the corresponding Pt(111) surface and 90-fold more active than the current state-of-the- art Pt/C catalysts for PEMFC. The Pt3Ni( 111) surface has an unusual electronic structure (d-band center position) and arrangement of surface atoms in the near-surface region. Under operating conditions relevant to fuel cells, its near-surface layer exhibits a highly structured compositional oscillation in the outermost and third layers, which are Pt-rich, and in the second atomic layer, which is Ni-rich. The weak interaction between the Pt surface atoms and nonreactive oxygenated species increases the number of active sites for O-2 adsorption.

Addresses:

Argonne Natl Lab, Div Mat Sci, Argonne, IL 60439 USA.

Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Div Sci Mat, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.

Univ Liverpool, Dept Phys, Oliver Lodge Lab, Liverpool L69 7ZE, Merseyside, England.

Univ S Carolina, Dept Chem & Phys, Aiken, SC 29801 USA.

Present addresses:

Vojislav R. Stamenkovic: Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA. E-mail: vrstamenkovic@anl.gov

Ben Fowler: Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 7ZE, UK.

Bongjin Simon Mun: Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Guofeng Wang: Department of Chemistry and Physics, University of South Carolina, Aiken, SC 29801, USA.

Philip N. Ross: Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. E-mail: PNRoss@lbl.gov

Christopher A. Lucas: Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 7ZE, UK. E-mail: Clucas@liverpool.ac.uk

Nenad M. Marković: Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA. E-mail: nmmarkovic@anl.gov

Reprint Address: Stamenkovic, VR. Argonne Natl Lab, Div Mat Sci, 9700 S Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 USA. E-mail: vrstamenkovic@anl.gov

Web of Science Category: Multidisciplinary Sciences


Jens K. Nørskov

Jan Rossmeisl

Áshildur Logadóttir

L. Lindqvist

John R. Kitchin

Thomas Bligaard

Hannes Jónsson

 

18.     Nørskov, J.K., Rossmeisl, J., Logadottir, A., Lindqvist, L., Kitchin, J.R., Bligaard, T. and Jónsson, H. (2004), Origin of the overpotential for oxygen reduction at a fuel-cell cathode. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 108 (46), 17886-17892.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 2414

Author Keywords:

Abstract: We present a method for calculating the stability of reaction intermediates of electrochemical processes on the basis of electronic structure calculations. We used that method in combination with detailed density functional calculations to develop a detailed description of the free-energy landscape of the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction over Pt(111) as a function of applied bias. This allowed us to identify the origin of the overpotential found for this reaction. Adsorbed oxygen and hydroxyl are found to be very stable intermediates at potentials close to equilibrium, and the calculated rate constant for the activated proton/electron transfer to adsorbed oxygen or hydroxyl can account quantitatively for the observed kinetics. On the basis of a database of calculated oxygen and hydroxyl adsorption energies, the trends in the oxygen reduction rate for a large number of different transition and noble metals can be accounted for. Alternative reaction mechanisms involving proton/electron transfer to adsorbed molecular oxygen were also considered, and this peroxide mechanism was found to dominate for the most noble metals. The model suggests ways to improve the electrocatalytic properties of fuel-cell cathodes.

Addresses:

Center for Atomic-scale Materials Physics, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716

Science Institute, VR-II, University of Iceland, IS-107 Reykjavík, Iceland

Faculty of Science, VR-II, University of Iceland, IS-107 Reykjavík, Iceland

Present addresses:

Jens K. Nørskov: Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA. E-mail: norskov@stanford.edu

Jan Rossmeisl: Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Capital Region, Denmark. E-mail: jross@fysik.dtu.dk

Áshildur Logadóttir: Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Capital Region, Denmark

L Lindqvist: Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark

John R. Kitchin: Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA. E-mail: jkitchin@andrew.cmu.edu

Thomas Bligaard: Stanford University, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA. E-mail: bligaard@stanford.edu

Hannes Jónsson: University of Iceland, Chemistry division of the Science Institute, Iceland; E-mail: hj@hi.is

Reprint Address:

J.K. Nørskov (reprint author), Center for Atomic-scale Materials Physics, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark. E-mail Addresseses: norskov@fysik.dtu.dk

Web of Science Category: Chemistry, Physical


Nina I. Kovtyukhova

Patricia J. Ollivier

Benjamin R. Martin

Thomas E. Mallouk

Sergey A. Chizhik

Eugenia V. Buzaneva

Alexandr D. Gorchinskiy

 

19.     Kovtyukhova, N.I., Ollivier, P.J., Martin, B.R., Mallouk, T.E., Chizhik, S.A., Buzaneva, E.V. and Gorchinskiy, A.D. (1999), Layer-by-layer assembly of ultrathin composite films from micron-sized graphite oxide sheets and polycations. Chemistry of Materials, 11 (3), 771-778.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 2317

Abstract: Unilamellar colloids of graphite oxide (GO) were prepared from natural graphite and were grown as monolayer and multilayer thin films on cationic surfaces by electrostatic self-assembly. The multilayer films were grown by alternate adsorption of anionic GO sheets and cationic poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH). The monolayer films consisted of 11-14 Angstrom thick GO sheets, with lateral dimensions between 150 nm and 9 mu m. Silicon substrates primed with amine monolayers gave partial GO monolayers, but surfaces primed with Al13O4-(OH)(24)(H2O)(12)(7+) ions gave densely tiled films that covered approximately 90% of the surface. When alkaline GO colloids were used, the monolayer assembly process selected the largest sheets (from 900 nm to 9 mu m) from the suspension. In this case, many of the flexible sheets appeared folded in AFM images. Multilayer (GO/PAH)(n) films were invariably thicker than expected from the individual thicknesses of the sheets and the polymer monolayers, and this behavior is also attributed to folding of the sheets. Multilayer (GO/PAH), and (GO/polyaniline)(n) films grown between indium-tin oxide and Pt electrodes show diodelike behavior, and higher currents are observed with the conductive polyaniline-containing films. The resisitivity of these films is decreased, as expected, by partial reduction of GO to carbon.

Addresses:

Nina I. Kovtyukhova: Institute of Surface Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31, Pr. Nauky, 252022 Kyiv, Ukraine

Patricia J. Ollivier: Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA

Benjamin R. Martin: Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA

Thomas E. Mallouk: Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA

Sergey A. Chizhik: Metal-Polymer Research Institute, 32A Kirov Street, Gomel, 246652, Belarus, Ukraine

Eugenia V. Buzaneva: National T. Shevchenko University, 64, Vladimirskaya Str., 252033 Kyiv, Ukraine

Alexandr D. Gorchinskiy: National T. Shevchenko University, 64, Vladimirskaya Str., 252033 Kyiv, Ukraine

Present addresses:

Nina I. Kovtyukhova: Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA, E-mail: nina@chem.psu.edu

Reprint Address: Nina I. Kovtyukhova: Institute of Surface Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31, Pr. Nauky, 252022 Kyiv, Ukraine

Web of Science Category: Physical Chemistry; Multidisciplinary Materials Science


Gero Decher

Jong-Dal Hong

Johannes Schmitt

20.     Decher, G., Hong, J.D. and Schmitt, J. (1992), Buildup of ultrathin multilayer films by a self-assembly process. III. Consecutively alternating adsorption of anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes on charged surfaces. Thin Solid Films, 210 (1-2), 831-835.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 2272

Abstract: Abstract: A solid substrate with a positively charged planar surface is immersed in a solution containing an anionic polyelectrolyte and a monolayer of the polyanion is adsorbed. Since the adsorption is carried out at relatively high concentrations of polyelectrolyte, a large number of ionic residues remain exposed to the interface with the solution and thus the surface charge is effectively reversed. After rinsing in pure water the substrate is immersed in the solution containing a cationic polyelectrolyte. Again a monolayer is adsorbed but now the original surface charge is restored. By repeating both steps in a cyclic fashion, alternating multilayer assemblies of both polymers are obtained. The buildup of the multilayer films was followed by UV/vis spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). It is demonstrated that multilayer films composed of at least 100 consecutively alternating layers can be assembled.

Addresses: Inslitut fur Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitiit, Welder Weg II, D-6500 Main, Germany

Present addresses:

Gero Decher: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Jong-Dal Hong: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Johannes Schmitt: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Reprint Address: Decher, Gero (reprint author), Univ Mainz, Inst Phys Chem, W-6500 Mainz, GERMANY

Web of Science Category: Multidisciplinary Materials Science; Coatings & Films Materials Science; Applied Physics; Condensed Matter Physics


C.H. Giles

T.H. MacEwan

S.N. Nakhwa

D. Smith

21.     Giles, C.H., MacEwan, T.H., Nakhwa, S.N. and Smith, D. (1960), Studies in adsorption. Part XI. A system of classification of solution adsorption isotherms, and its use in diagnosis of adsorption mechanisms and in measurement of specific surface areas of solids. Journal of the Chemical Society, 60, 3973-3993.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 2211

Address: Department of Chemical Technology, the Royal College of Science and Technology, Glasgow, UK

Web of Science Category: Multidisciplinary Chemistry


Byoungwoo Kang

Gerbrand Ceder

22.     Kang, B. and Ceder, G. (2009), Battery materials for ultrafast charging and discharging. Nature, 458 (7235), 190-193.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 2185

Abstract: The storage of electrical energy at high charge and discharge rate is an important technology in today's society, and can enable hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and provide back-up for wind and solar energy. It is typically believed that in electrochemical systems very high power rates can only be achieved with supercapacitors, which trade high power for low energy density as they only store energy by surface adsorption reactions of charged species on an electrode material(1-3). Here we show that batteries(4,5) which obtain high energy density by storing charge in the bulk of a material can also achieve ultrahigh discharge rates, comparable to those of supercapacitors. We realize this in LiFePO(4) (ref. 6), a material with high lithium bulk mobility(7,8), by creating a fast ion-conducting surface phase through controlled off-stoichiometry. A rate capability equivalent to full battery discharge in 10-20 s can be achieved.

Addresses: Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA

Present addresses:

Byoungwoo Kang: Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. E-mail:

Gerbrand Ceder: Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. E-mail: gceder@mit.edu

Reprint Address: Ceder, Gerbrand (reprint author), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. E-mail: gceder@mit.edu

Web of Science Category: Multidisciplinary Sciences


Yuh-Shan Ho

Gordon McKay

23.     Ho, Y.S. and McKay, G. (1998), Sorption of dye from aqueous solution by peat. Chemical Engineering Journal, 70 (2), 115-124.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 2178

Author Keywords: Peat; Lead; Copper; Nickel; Kinetics and Sorption

Abstract: A pseudo-second order rate equation describing the kinetics of sorption of divalent metal ions onto sphagnum moss peat at different initial metal ion concentrations and pear doses has been developed. The kinetics of sorption were followed based on the amounts of metal sorbed at various time intervals. Results show that sorption (chemical bonding) might be rate-limiting in the sorption of divalent metal ions onto peat during agitated batch contact time experiments. The rate constant, the equilibrium sorption capacity and the initial sorption rate were calculated. From these parameters, an empirical model for predicting the sorption capacity of metal ions sorbed was derived. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Addresses: Hong Kong University Science & Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Hong Kong, People’s R China

Present addresses:

Yuh-Shan Ho: Asia University, Water Research Centre, Taichung 41354, Taiwan. E-mail: ysho@asia.edu.tw

Gordon McKay: Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Sustainable Development, College of Science & Engineering, E-mail: gmckay@qf.org.qa

Reprint Address: McKay, G, Hong Kong University Science & Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Hong Kong, People’s R China

Web of Science Category: Environmental Engineering; Environmental Sciences; Water Resources


Hak Soo Choi

Wenhao Liu

Preeti Misra

Eiichi Tanaka

John P. Zimmer

Binil Itty Ipe

Moungi G. Bawendi

John V. Frangioni

24.     Choi, H.S., Liu, W., Misra, P., Tanaka, E., Zimmer, J.P., Ipe, B.I., Bawendi, M.G. and Frangioni, J.V. (2007), Renal clearance of quantum dots. Nature Biotechnology, 25 (10), 1165-1170.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 2173

Author Keywords:

Abstract: The field of nanotechnology holds great promise for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. However, the size and charge of most nanoparticles preclude their efficient clearance from the body as intact nanoparticles. Without such clearance or their biodegradation into biologically benign components, toxicity is potentially amplified and radiological imaging is hindered. Using intravenously administered quantum dots in rodents as a model system, we have precisely defined the requirements for renal filtration and urinary excretion of inorganic, metal-containing nanoparticles. Zwitterionic or neutral organic coatings prevented adsorption of serum proteins, which otherwise increased hydrodynamic diameter by > 15 nm and prevented renal excretion. A final hydrodynamic diameter <5.5 nm resulted in rapid and efficient urinary excretion and elimination of quantum dots from the body. This study provides a foundation for the design and development of biologically targeted nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

Addresses:

Hak Soo Choi: Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Room SL-B05, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

Wenhao Liu: Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Building 6-221, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

Preeti Misra: Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Room SL-B05, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

Eiichi Tanaka: Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Room SL-B05, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

John P. Zimmer: Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Building 6-221, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

Binil Itty Ipe: Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Building 6-221, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

Moungi G. Bawendi: Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Building 6-221, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

Present addresses:

Hak Soo Choi:

Wenhao Liu: Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Building 6-221, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

Preeti Misra:

Eiichi Tanaka:

John P. Zimmer: Smith Moore Leatherwood LLP, Charlotte, 101 N. Tryon St., Suite 1300 NC, USA. E-mail: john.zimmer@smithmoorelaw.com

Binil Itty Ipe:

Moungi G. Bawendi: Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Building 6-221, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. E-mail Addresseses: mgb@mit.edu

John V. Frangioni:

Reprint Address:

John V. Frangioni (reprint author), Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, Dept Med, Div Hematol Oncol, 330 Brookline Ave, Room SL-BO5, Boston, MA 02215 USA. E-mail Addresseses: jfrangio@bidmc.harvard.edu

Moungi G. Bawendi (reprint author), Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Building 6-221, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. E-mail Addresseses: mgb@mit.edu

Web of Science Category: Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology


Md Khaja Nazeeruddin

Peter Péchy

Thierry Renouard

Shaik M. Zakeeruddin

Robin Humphry-Baker

Pascal Comte

Paul Liska

Le Cevey

Emiliana Costa

Valery Shklover

Leone Spiccia

Glen B. Deacon

Carlo A. Bignozzi

Michael Grätzel

 

25.     Nazeeruddin, M.K., Péchy, P., Renouard, T., Zakeeruddin, S.M., Humphry-Baker, R., Comte, P., Liska, P., Cevey, L., Costa, E., Shklover, V., Spiccia, L., Deacon, G.B., Bignozzi, C.A. and Gratzel, M. (2001), Engineering of efficient panchromatic sensitizers for nanocrystalline TiO2-based solar cells. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 123 (8), 1613-1624.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 2126

Abstract: A new series of panchromatic ruthenium(II) sensitizers derived from carboxylated terpyridyl complexes of tris-thiocyanato Ru(II) have been developed. Black dye containing different degrees of protonation {(C2H5)(3)NH}[Ru(H(3)tcterpy)(NCS)(3)] 1, {(C4H9)(4)N}(2)[Ru(H(2)tcterpy)(NCS)(3)] 2, {(C4H9)(4)N}(3)[RU(Htcterpy)(NCS)(3)] 3, and {(C4H9)(4)N}(4)[Ru(tcterpy)(NCS)(3)] 4 (tcterpy = 4,4',4 “ -tricarboxy-2,2':6',2 “ -terpyridine) have been synthesized and fully characterized by UV-vis, emission, IR, Raman, NMR, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray diffraction studies. The crystal structure of complex 2 confirms the presence of a Ru(II)N6 central core derived from the terpyridine ligand and three N-bonded thiocyanates. Intermolecular H-bonding between carboxylates on neighboring terpyridines gives rise to 2-D H-bonded arrays. The absorption and emission maxima of the black dye show a bathochromic shift with decreasing pH and exhibit pH-dependent excited-state lifetimes. The red-shift of the emission maxima is due to better pi -acceptor properties of the acid form that lowers the energy of the CT excited state. The low-energy metal-to-ligand charge-transfer absorption band showed marked solvatochromism due to the presence of thiocyanate ligands. The Ru(II)/(III) oxidation potential of the black dye and the ligand-based reduction potential shifted cathodically with decreasing number of protons and showed more reversible character. The adsorption of complex 3 from methoxyacetonitrile solution onto transparent TiO2 films was interpreted by a Langmuir isotherm yielding an adsorption equilibrium constant, K-ads, of (1.0 +/- 0.3) x 10(5) M-1. The amount of dye adsorbed at monolayer saturation was (n(alpha) = 6.9 +/- 0.3) x 10(-8) mol/mg of TiO2, which is around 30% less than that of the cis-di(thiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate)-ruthenium(II) complex. The black dye, when anchored to nanocrystalline;TiO2. films achieves very efficient sensitization over the whole visible range extending into the near-IR region up to 920 nm, yielding over 80% incident photon to-current efficiencies (IPCE). solar cells containing the black dye were subjected to analysis by a photovoltaic calibration laboratory (NREL, U.S.A.) to determine their solar-to-electric conversion efficiency under standard AM 1.5 sunlight. A short circuit photocurrent density obtained was 20.5 mA/cm(2), and the open circuit voltage was 0.72 V corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 10.4%.

Addresses: Contribution from the Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

Present addresses:

Md Khaja Nazeeruddin: Contribution from the Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. E-mail: Mdkhaja.Nazeeruddin@epfl.ch

Peter Péchy: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Section, Switzerland

Thierry Renouard:

Shaik M. Zakeeruddin:

Robin Humphry-Baker:

Pascal Comte:

Paul Liska:

Le Cevey:

Emiliana Costa: Dipartimento de Chimica, Università di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara, Italy

Valery Shklover: Laboratory of Crystallography, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland

Leone Spiccia: Centre for Green Chemistry and Department of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3168, Australia. E-mail: Leone.Spiccia@monash.edu

Glen B. Deacon: Centre for Green Chemistry and Department of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3168, Australia. E-mail: Glen.Deacon@monash.edu

Carlo A. Bignozzi: Dipartimento de Chimica, Università di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara, Italy

Michael Gra1tzel:

Reprint Address: Nazeeruddin, MK (reprint author), Contribution from the Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

E-mail Addresses: Mdkhaja.Nazeeruddin@epfl.ch

Web of Science Category: Multidisciplinary Chemistry


T.E. Springer

Thomas A. Zawodzinski

S. Gottesfeld

26.     Springer, T.E., Zawodzinski, T.A. and Gottesfeld, S. (1991), Polymer electrolyte fuel cell model. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 138 (8), 2334-2342.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 2103

Abstract: We present here an isothermal, one-dimensional, steady-state model for a complete polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) with a 117 Nafion(R) membrane. In this model we employ water diffusion coefficients electro-osmotic drag coefficients, water sorption isotherms, and membrane conductivities, all measured in our laboratory as functions of membrane water content. The model predicts a net-water-per-proton flux ratio of 0.2 H2O/H+ under typical operating conditions, which is much less than the measured electro-osmotic drag coefficient for a fully hydrated membrane. It also predicts an increase in membrane resistance with increased current density and demonstrates the great advantage of a thinner membrane in alleviating this resistance problem. Both of these predictions were verified experimentally under certain conditions.

Present addresses:

T.E. Springer:

T.A. Zawodzinski:

S. Gottesfeld:

Reprint Address: Springer, TE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA

Web of Science Category: Electrochemistry; Coatings & Films Materials Science


Stephen V. Boyden

27.     Boyden, S.V. (1951), The adsorption of proteins on erythrocytes treated with tannic acid and subsequent hemagglutination by antiprotein sera. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 93 (2), 107-120.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 2085

Addresses: Laboratories of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research; Animal Health Trust, London, England.

Web of Science Category: Immunology; Research & Experimental Medicine


Yoshio Idota

Tadahiko Kubota

Akihiro Matsufuji

Yukio Maekawa

Tsutomu Miyasaka

28.     Idota, Y., Kubota, T., Matsufuji, A., Maekawa, Y. and Miyasaka, T. (1997), Tin-based amorphous oxide: A high-capacity lithium-ion-storage material. Science, 276 (5317), 1395-1397.

Times Cited in Web of Science Core Collection: 2069

Abstract: A high-capacity lithium-storage material in metal-oxide form has been synthesized that can replace the carbon-based lithium intercalation materials currently in extensive use as the negative electrode (anode) of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. This tin-based amorphous composite oxide (TCO) contains Sn(II)-O as the active center for lithium insertion and other glass-forming elements, which make up an oxide network. The TCO anode yields a specific capacity for reversible lithium adsorption more than 50 percent higher than those of the carbon families that persists after charge-discharge cycling when coupled with a lithium cobalt oxide cathode. Lithium-7 nuclear magnetic resonance measurements evidenced the high ionic state of lithium retained in the charged state, in which TCO accepted 8 moles of lithium ions per unit mole.

Addresses: Y. Idota and T. Kubota, Fujifilm Celltec, Matsuzakadaira 1-6, Taiwa-cho, Kurokawa-gun, Miyagi 981-34, Japan

A. Matsufuji, Y. Maekawa, T. Miyasaka, Ashigara Re- search Laboratories, Fuji Photo Film, Nakanuma 210, Minamiashigara, Kanagawa 250-01, Japan

Present addresses:

Yoshio Idota:

Tadahiko Kubota:

Akihiro Matsufuji:

Yukio Maekawa:

Tsutomu Miyasaka: Toin University of Yokohama, Graduate School of Engineering, Japan. E-mail: miyasaka@toin.ac.jp

Web of Science Category: Multidisciplinary Sciences